BREXIT AND FUNDING:
THE ANSWERS

As no country has ever invoked article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty it is yet uncertain how the Brexit process will affect EU funding practice. But, as things stand, it is expected that a Brexit will affect the access to EU funding. So are you actively participating in the Horizon 2020 programme, currently coordinating an EU funded project, or about to prepare an EU grant application? Chances are you have questions on how Brexit could affect your funded or planned project.

Brexit-funding.com provides you with the answers.


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"As no country has ever invoked article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty it is yet uncertain how the Brexit process will affect EU funding practice. "

The Brexit: a short outline

On Thursday June 23th 2016 the British people casted their vote in a historic EU referendum. The next day, a win for the leave-camp was declared, after a 43-year membership of the EU. Since the appointment of Theresa May as Prime Minister on July 13th , the central approach of the UK is: “Brexit means Brexit, and we’re going to make a success of it.” Before the official negotiations about the future relationship between the EU and the UK can commence, the UK must trigger article 50 Treaty on European Union. Mrs. May has stated she would trigger article 50 TEU on March 29th 2017. With regard to access to EU funding, it is only logical that the Brexit decision will impact the international cooperation between the industry, research institutes and Governments on innovations, R&D and new technology. In this regard, the resignation from the EURATOM Treaty is a first step in this direction. Thereto, an announcement to possible funding after a Brexit, was made by Mrs. May in her Brexit speech on January 17th, where she stated that “There may be some specific European programmes in which we might want to participate. If so, and this will be for us to decide, it is reasonable that we should make an appropriate contribution.” Since PNO Consultants is Europe’s largest independent public funding advisory, supporting over 4,000 clients throughout Europe and developing over 150 European consortia annually, we are monitoring the path towards a Brexit closely, together with our office in the UK, our clients and their project partners.

What happens next?

The British choice to leave the EU results in a unique, unprecedented situation. To make things more complex, article 50 TEU only provides the outline of the exit procedure. As such, the first step is to determine the decision-making process within the UK. Thereto, the British Supreme Court ruled that the Government cannot trigger article 50 TEU without an authorizing act of Parliament. The argument of the Supreme Court was that triggering Article 50 TEU would constitute overturning existing UK law, and therefore MPs and peers should decide upon the matter. Notwithstanding the Supreme Court Decision, Ms. May has stated that she will trigger art. 50 TEU on the 29th 0f March 2017, as the majority of Parliamentary MP’s – including the opposition – have clearly stated they would not frustrate the process of invoking article 50 TEU. The second step in the process are the negotiations. As soon as the UK has officially notified the EU of its intention to withdraw from the EU, a two-year deadline applies to negotiate and conclude an agreement, setting out the arrangements for the withdrawal, taking account of the framework for the future relationship of the UK with the Union. On the basis of the timetable set by Mrs. May, Brexit would come into effect by April 2019 , without taking possible delays into account. The outcome of the Brexit negotiations cannot be predicted. At this moment, the following is known about the position of the key players:

  • 1. The approach of Mrs. May (and the Government) is to aim at a so called “hard Brexit”, meaning the full repatriation of political power from the EU, including a withdrawal from the single market, but keeping the advantages of free trade in goods and services. In this regard, she wants the greatest possible access to the single market “through a new, comprehensive, bold and ambitious free trade agreement”. Mrs. May seeks to find a new and equal partnership between an independent, self-governing UK and the European Union. Nevertheless, she is outspoken that no deal or a new agreement is better than a bad deal for Britain.
  • 2. UK’s Parliament could influence this approach by ensuring a “softer Brexit”, as the Supreme Court decided that the Government has no power to trigger article 50 TEU without consulting Parliament. Also, once the negotiation process between the UK and the EU is concluded, the Government will put the final Brexit-deal up for a vote in both Parliamentary Houses.
  • 3. The EU intends to only enter into negotiations after the UK has invoked article 50 TEU, with a clear and unequivocal stance on the inseparability of the four freedoms. Therefore, it seems unlikely that the EU will fully consent with the UK’s objective to withdraw from the single market, but at the same time maintain all the advantages of free trade in goods and services.
  •  

    Concurring with this, the UK Government has initiated a Great Repeal Bill which will withdraw the legislation that gives direct effect to EU Law in Britain. The existing EU law will be converted into British law and will then be free to amend by Parliament. With this, the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice in the UK will end. After the Great Repeal Bill is adopted, UK Participants of EU funded projects are no longer directly bounded to comply with EU laws. However, the Grant Agreement and Consortium Agreements can bring the contractual obligation to execute the project within the EU legal framework. After the negotiation phase, the third step is Parliament’s say on the invocation of article 50 TEU, Mrs. May stated in her speech of January 17th 2017, that that the Government will also put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it will come into force. In conclusion, some statements from the EU or the UK on the impact of the Brexit on “post Brexit funding” are expected on the short term, as the formal negotiations are to commence after art. 50 is invoked. This is expected to happen on March 29th 2017. Therefore, more clarity on the process is expected in a matter of days. PNO Consultants will keep you posted on any relevant updates through this website.

    Last updated: March 20, 2017

    What's the impact for ongoing European projects?

    Since the Brexit vote took place last year, there is now more clarity and reassurance with regard to EU funded projects. The outcome of the British referendum does not impact EU projects projects for as long as the UK is still in the European Union. On 29 June the Heads of State of Government of 27 Member States, as well as the Presidents of the European Council and the President of the European Commission, have jointly declared that EU Law continues to apply to and within the UK until the UK actually leaves the EU. As confirmed by the EC, this includes the eligibility of UK legal entities to participate and receive funding in Horizon 2020 actions. After their joint statement, the Heads of State of the 27 Member States, as well as the Presidents of the European Council and the European Commission have adopted a wait and see attitude towards the Brexit developments.



    Short term: ongoing projects are not changed in any way by the negotiation phase

    This announcement of the EU institutions means that there is no change in the approach towards British participants in already funded projects. Since the administration of Mrs. May has announced it will trigger article 50 TEU on March 29th 2017 to pursue for a Brexit, it is expected that the UK is on track towards independence by April 2019, after the final deal between the UK and the EU has also been put to a vote in both Houses of Parliament. Therefore, in practice, the majority of the current projects are expected to be completed within that time frame, making it possible to simply execute the project as planned in the application.


    Longer term: legally binding contracts in a changing Europe

    Beyond the negotiations, a situation may occur in which the duration of an already funded project exceeds the commencement of a withdrawal agreement between the UK and the EU. Would the British participants still be entitled to receive EU funding in this case? In this regard, the UK’s finance minister Philip Hammond has made two different extensive commitments that multi-year EU project funding granted before departure from the EU, will be guaranteed by the UK after a Brexit.

    First, in the midst of August finance minister Philip Hammond said EU structural and investment fund projects signed before the Autumn Statement of 2016, and Horizon research funding granted to UK participant before the UK leaving the EU, will be guaranteed by the British Treasury after the UK leaves. This guarantee covers:

  • - All structural and investment fund projects, including agri-environment schemes, signed before the Autumn Statement will be fully funded, even when these projects continue beyond the UK’s departure from the EU. - All direct competitively bid projects directly with the European Commission, for example universities participating in Horizon 2020. - The current level of agricultural funding under CAP pillar 1 will be upheld until 2020 as part of the transition to new domestic arrangements. Secondly, on the 3rd of October 2016 finance minister Hammond made a consecutive announcement that provides further certainty for structural and investment fund projects, including agri-environment schemes: the government now guaranteed the funding for structural and investment fund projects signed after the Autumn Statement in 2016 , even if the projects continue beyond the point of departure of the UK from the EU. It should be noted that the UK government does attach conditions to the continuation of funding for these projects after a Brexit. The conditions are: - Good value for money. - Projects should be in line with domestic (UK) strategic priorities. According to Philip Hammond this announcement results in an environment in which British business, farmers and other organizations can continue applying for EU funding while the UK is still part of the EU. Furthermore, it’s important to note that current H2020 projects can derive certainty from the Grant Agreement. The H2020 Grant Agreement is a legally binding contract between the EC and the project parties. The Model Grant Agreement of 25 November 2016 requires the EC to fulfil its side of the obligations, including the funding of eligible costs of project parties. Section 50.3 of the Model Grant Agreement describes the circumstances in which the EC may decide to terminate the Agreement or the participation of one or more beneficiaries. The termination of an EU-membership is not provided in this section. In summary, the already signed Grant Agreements should be fulfilled, irrespective of a Brexit.
    Any questions about a (different) funding program in relation to your ongoing project and the Brexit?

     

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  • Brexit & Funding: consequences of the Brexit on future applications

    The key question today for those who are building international consortia to launch a new project is whether or not it makes sense to anticipate on the Brexit in future applications. At this point much is still uncertain. We now know that the negotiations will start after Mrs. May has triggered article 50 on March 29th 2017. What new arrangements will be constituted between the UK and the EU and which effect the outcome of the pending negotiations may have on the markets, remains to be seen. In essence, all we can say for now is that an approach on new applications ought to be based on facts, not feelings.

    Short term: future applications during the negotiations

    When it comes to future applications the EU institutions have send a clear message: as long as the UK is a member of the EU, UK organizations will be treated like any other organizations within the EU. This means that UK organizations can apply for EU funding under the same conditions as any other organization within Europe. It is only justified that funding programs are available to UK organizations because the UK continues the contributions to the EU budget while the process of negotiations is under way.
    There are reservations about how this will work in practice though. Various players have expressed their fear that applications with a British participation might receive a lower evaluation as of the referendum, whether deliberately or not. This sentiment could result in a reduced number of applications with British participation. It is too early to draw conclusions in this area so further developments have to be awaited.

    A second comment is that a positive decision on a future application might result in a project, which is not completed before a Brexit comes into effect. In theory, this could jeopardize the continuity of the project, depending also on the legal aspects of the specific funding agreement(s) and the EU legal framework. In practice, the negative influence of a Brexit on future projects is likely to be resolved if the UK keeps participating in EU funding, establishes the Norway option or if these projects become part of the transitional measures. Further clarification will be provided when more information is available.


    Longer term: future applications after a Brexit

    If the negotiations would lead the UK to withdraw from the EU a new form of cooperation between the two will be established. As described under the general information on this website there are four main options for the renewed cooperation. These four options could basically lead to three different situations regarding the access to EU funding:

    • UK organizations continue to have full access to all EU funding;
    • The UK is treated as an associated country and/or needs to gain access to EU funding by negotiating a separate deal per funding program;
    • UK organizations are treated like a third party.

    The future access of UK organizations to EU funding is therefore also dependent on the characteristics of the specific funding program. This can be illustrated with an overview of the main grant schemes and their current rules on access to grants.

    • Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) is open to applicants from all EU Member States, plus Iceland and Norway. Applicants from neighbouring third countries can participate in the calls under certain conditions and may only receive financial assistance if it is indispensable to the achievement of the objectives of a given project of common interest.
    • Competitiveness of Enterprises and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (COSME) targets SMEs which are established and operating in European Union Member States, as well as Iceland (Switzerland cannot participate as there is no legal basis under which it could do so). There are also a number of third counties that have signed an International Agreement to join COSME.
    • UK organizations are treated like a third party.
    Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) is open to applicants from all EU Member States, plus Iceland and Norway. Applicants from neighbouring third countries can participate in the calls under certain conditions and may only receive financial assistance if it is indispensable to the achievement of the objectives of a given project of common interest.
    Competitiveness of Enterprises and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (COSME) targets SMEs which are established and operating in European Union Member States, as well as Iceland (Switzerland cannot participate as there is no legal basis under which it could do so). There are also a number of third counties that have signed an International Agreement to join COSME.
    COST is an intergovernmental framework – aside from the European Union - consisting in 36 Member Countries and a Cooperating State (Israel). As a result, a Brexit is not expected to have any consequences on proposals under this program.
    ERASMUS+ is fully open to all EU Member States and five Non-EU Counties (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Turkey). In addition, there are a number of Partner Countries like Israel, Russia and Ukraine who can take part in certain actions under Erasmus+, subject to specific criteria and conditions.
    European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) covers all internal and external land borders of the EU as well as maritime borders. Third countries may only participate in cooperation programmes. In such cases, ERDF support may either take the form of financial contribution to programmes under the European Neighbourhood Instrument (ENI) and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA II), or operate as a separate measure. Lead beneficiaries shall in principal be located in a Member State.
    European Social Fund (ESF) is solely available through the Member States of the EU. The EU distributes ESF funding to the Member States and regions to finance their operational programmes on improving job prospects and a socially inclusive society. Therefore, it seems likely that the UK will no longer participate in the ESF after a Brexit.
    In the 3th Health Programme applications from entities established in the following countries are eligible: (i) EU Member States; (ii) Iceland, Norway and Serbia; (iii) countries which have a bilateral agreement with the Union.

    Horizon 2020 provides funding to all EU Member States, the Overseas Countries and Territories linked to the Member States (like Curacao and the British Virgin Islands), Countries associated to Horizon 2020 (including Iceland, Norway, Turkey, and Israel) and a list of third countries which are automatically eligible for funding. Swiss organizations participate fully in the Excellent Science pillar while they are treated as a third county in other H2020 priorities. The agreement with Switzerland is therefore a good example of what a deal per program for the UK could look like.
    LIFE Programme is open to European countries which are parties to the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA), (potential) candidate and acceding countries to the Union, countries to which the European Neighborhood Policy applies and countries who are members of the European Environmental Agency. Until now the UK was connected to this programme through the EU. It’s not clear yet if the UK maintains its membership of the European Environmental Agency after a Brexit.
    Any questions about a (different) funding program in relation to your future application and the Brexit?

     

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    Actual Brexit effects

    Effects of Brexit could spring from legal framework and policy changes but also from potential shifts in participants and consortia behaviour. Will the imminent Brexit impact the evaluation of EU grant proposals? Is the degree of success of individual applicants subject to change? Will there be shifts in the participation in EU funding programmes?

    Although there is much speculation, these questions cannot be answered yet. Therefore we will actively monitor participation levels and evaluation outcomes for all major EU funding programmes. Our findings - in terms of unbiased factual data - will be presented here and will be regularly updated. If you’re interested, we suggest checking back on a regular basis or signing up for our free alert-service.

    Monitored indicators

    Key indicators that we will monitor for changes include the:

    • total number of participants by EU Member State
    • total amount of financial contribution by EU Member State
    • success rate in terms of applications per EU Member State
    • top-50 organisations in terms of EC financial contribution allocated in signed grants

    Reference situation

    To objectively assess the Brexit impact on actual EU funding practice we will use data from the most recent pre-Brexit EU monitoring reports as our reference situation. Due to the timing of EU monitoring reports it will take quite some time before actual Brexit effects can be measured based on these reports. To illustrate this, the Horizon 2020 Monitoring Report 2014 was published in 2016 and is the most recent report. To build-up an understanding of Brexit effects prior to the Monitoring Reports, we will assess call evaluation results as soon as they get published and will periodically execute data-analysis on available EU project databases.


    Impact assessment

    Reference situation: pre-Brexit Horizon 2020 participation and success rates The Horizon 2020 and Public-Private Partnerships (Joint Undertakings) grant agreements signed before 1 December 2015 have resulted in the pre-Brexit participation levels, financial contributions and success rates per EU Member State and the top-50 performers per segment - in terms of EC financial contribution allocated – as presented below (Source: European Commission).

     

     

    Pre-Brexit top Horizon 2020 benificiaries

       

        

     
         

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    What happens next?

    On Thursday June 23th the British people could cast their vote in a historic EU referendum. The next day the win of the leave was declared. A majority of 52% voted for a Brexit after a 43-year membership of the EU. The appointment of Theresa May as Prime Minister on July 13th is not expected to affect the outcome of the UK’s referendum. Although Mrs. May campaigned for ‘Remain’, there would be political and constitutional issues raised by going against the vote to leave. Or as Theresa May expressed it: “Brexit means Brexit, and we’re going to make a success of it.”

    As things stand, it is foreseen that a Brexit will affect the trade between the UK and the EU, the free movement of persons and the access to EU funding. It is only logical that this decision will have some impact on the international cooperation between the industry, research institutes and governments on innovations, R&D and new technology.

    Since PNO Consultants is Europe’s largest independent public funding advisory, supporting over 4,000 clients throughout Europe and developing over 150 European consortia annually, we are monitoring the path towards a Brexit closely, together with our office in the UK, our clients and their project partners.

    The British choice to leave the EU results in a unique, unprecedented situation. To make things more complex, article 50 Treaty on European Union only provides the outline of the exit procedure. As such, the first step is to determine the decision-making process within the UK. Prominent British lawyers took a stand against the binding value of the advisory referendum and stated that the Parliament should have a free vote before article 50 can be invoked by the UK.

    Once article 50 is triggered a two-year deadline for withdrawal applies, although a delay is generally expected. The EU intends to enter into negotiations as soon as possible to limit the uncertainty, with a focus on the divorce whereas the UK currently favours a somewhat calmer approach in which the new partnership with the EU is part of the deal. There are four main options on the outcome of the negotiations:

    • The Norway option which requires the British to adopt all EU legislation, which may not be acceptable to the UK.
    • A special relationship with the EU in which the UK retains access to the internal market without the obligation to adopt all EU legislation, which seems unlikely from an EU point of view.
    • Treat the UK as a non-European trading partner and reach a settlement in a separate Trade Agreement (the so called Canadian option).
    • Arrange the relationship between the EU and the UK within the framework of the World Trade Organization.

    Each exit scenario will probably be combined with transitional arrangements to promote a soft landing.

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    Questions and Answers

    Do you have a question regarding the impact of Brexit on EU funding practice? Just ask us. Fill in your question and our domain experts will provide you with an answer. Over time we will build up a Q&A with the most relevant questions and answers on Brexit’s impact on EU funding. Ask your question or see our Q&A section

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    Date:
        30-07-2016 
           
    Subject:
        Funding
           
    Question:
        Could you mention somewhere on your website the Eureka network and in particular the Eurostars funding scheme, which are independent of EU membership, but support European R&D?
           
    Answer:     Eurostars is a joint programme of the EUREKA network supporting R&D performing small and medium sized enterprises. EUREKA is not instituted by the European Union, it is an intergovernmental network, co-funded from the national budgets of 34 countries and for 25% by the European Union through Horizon 2020. The membership of the UK to the EUREKA network goes back to 1985. Besides, each country can set national funding rules and procedures (see for the specifics of the UK: https://www.eurostars-eureka.eu/countries/united-kingdom). Although a Brexit could influence the Eurostars budget for UK companies, a complete withdrawal from the Eurostars funding scheme seems unlikely against this background.


     

    Date:
        28-07-2016 
           
    Subject:
        The effects of the forthcoming Brexit on funding with British participants
           
    Question:
        Will currently submitted projects with EU partners be assessed? If so will the presence of a UK partner be seen as a negative?
           
    Answer:     The current position, which has been confirmed by both the EC and the UK government, is that the UK still pays into the “pot” for H2020, and at least until such time as Brexit is completed UK organisations continue to be eligible for funding. However the unknown factor is whether the evaluators will demonstrate negative scoring towards UK projects. So far the initial results of recent evaluations do not show signs of a negative bias towards UK participants. To illustrate: our own PNO UK operation very recently - post Brexit announcement - got two H2020 applications awarded by the EC. In both cases the coordinator is a UK organization (PNO UK itself operates as a coordinator in one of the approved projects). We will be watching the overall results of H2020 programmes and analysis them to see if there is a drop in the UK success rate. When this information is available we will add it to the Brexit Funding website.


     

    Date:
        27-07-2016 
           
    Subject:
        Education and funding
           
    Question:
        Many EU funded programmes contain an educational aspect. The EIT KIC programmes are a good example. Under EU agreements there is the Bologna agreement on educational qualification transferability. This also means that any EU member state educational offering in a funded programme is eligible as it meets this requirement. UK higher education is 'different' to the mainstream continental European provision. How will the Bologna agreement in relation to UK be effected by Brexit? 
           
    Answer:     Although it is still difficult to foresee what its exact consequences will be, it is fair to state that also in the area of Higher Education and exchange of students and the transferability of qualifications the BREXIT will most likely have an impact. As with most other issues in this respect (e.g. H2020 funding) the Bologna agreement will also be on the negotiating table, and both sides will have to decide if it remains in effect after the UK exits the EU. See for the official statement by Erasmus+ on June 28th 2016: http://www.erasmusplus.nl/actueel/nieuws/update--brexit-gevolgen-voor-erasmus.

    Brexit Blog

    Want to stay on top of developments as Brexit unfolds? Just follow our live Brexit Blog to find the latest updates on how Brexit impacts EU funding practice. Read the Brexit Blog.







    Date News

    OCTOBER 11, 2017

    UK scientists told: in no-deal Brexit scenario they will have to leave EU research projects

    The EU Commission has for the first time laid out how it will handle its scientific relationships with the UK after the country leaves in 2019, in a sign that Brussels has begun thinking about emergency steps should Brexit negotiations fail. In a notice posted on the research section of the Commission website on October 6, UK researchers are informed that if the UK does not agree on a new science cooperation arrangement with Brussels after it leaves in March 2019, they will not receive any more EU funding or will have to leave existing projects.

    Full article: https://sciencebusiness.net/framework-programmes/news/uk-scientists-told-no-deal-brexit-scenario-they-will-have-leave-eu

    Date News

    OCTOBER 11, 2017

    UK scientists told: in no-deal Brexit scenario they will have to leave EU research projects

    The EU Commission has for the first time laid out how it will handle its scientific relationships with the UK after the country leaves in 2019, in a sign that Brussels has begun thinking about emergency steps should Brexit negotiations fail. In a notice posted on the research section of the Commission website on October 6, UK researchers are informed that if the UK does not agree on a new science cooperation arrangement with Brussels after it leaves in March 2019, they will not receive any more EU funding or will have to leave existing projects.

    Full article: https://sciencebusiness.net/framework-programmes/news/uk-scientists-told-no-deal-brexit-scenario-they-will-have-leave-eu


    JULY 13, 2017

    Has Brexit affected Horizon 2020 funding to the UK?

    It has been over a year since the UK’s referendum on EU membership with the UK invoking Article 50 on 28th March 2017. While the European Commission has clearly declared that the UK’s rights and obligations continue to apply until the UK leaves the EU, there has nonetheless been fear over reviewers penalising UK involvement in H2020. In this article, we follow-up our earlier analysis on the post-Brexit effects on UK participation in H2020.

    Full article: https://www.ttopstart.com/news/has-brexit-affected-horizon-2020-funding-to-the-uk

    FEBRUARI 1, 2017

    Brexit white paper to be published on Thursday?

    Theresa May is planning to publish the government’s Brexit white paper on Thursday, but could first make one further concession by agreeing to report back to parliament on a regular basis, sources have told the Guardian.

    Full article: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jan/31/brexit-white-paper-to-be-published-on-thursday-theresa-may-sources-say

    FEBRUARI 1, 2017

    Brexatom delivers first big blow to EU/UK science collaboration

    Nuclear scientists have become the first to face up to the hard realities of what Brexit means for UK/EU research cooperation, following the announcement that Britain is to pull out of the Euratom-community when it leaves the EU.

    Full article: http://sciencebusiness.net/news/80110/Brexatom-delivers-first-big-blow-to-EU/UK-science-collaboration

    JANUARY 19, 2017

    EU politicians and businesses warn May over 'difficult' Brexit

    European politicians and multinationals lined up to warn Theresa May the UK’s exit from the European Union will be fraught with difficulty. Key Brussels negotiators told her she was being over-optimistic in her hope to achieve a quick clean break from the EU, and industrialists said her Brexit speech had left UK jobs at risk.

    Full article: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2017/jan/18/eu-politicians-media-warn-prepare-difficult-brexit-negotiations-theresa-may-boris-johnson

    JANUARY 18, 2017

    May sets Britain on course for a hard brexit

    In a major speech, Theresa May has outlined a 12-point plan on what relationship Britain will have with the E.U. once it leaves the bloc, confirming that Britain will leave the single market in order to regain full control of immigration. Here’s the entire text of her speech, as delivered at London’s Lancaster House on January 17th.

    Full article: http://time.com/4636141/theresa-may-brexit-speech-transcript/


    NOVEMBER 24, 2016

    UK government to give R&D a £4.745B post-Brexit boost
    The UK government has abandoned its target of balancing the books by the end of the current parliament in favour of a stimulus package that will see an extra £4.745 billion flowing into science and innovation over the next four years. The money for research and innovation will come from a new National Productivity Investment Fund, which will invest £23 billion from 2017-2022, mostly on housing and transport and telecom infrastructure. Some of the extra funding for R&D will be channelled through a new Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund.
    Full article: http://sciencebusiness.net/news/80025/UK-government-to-give-R-and-D-a-£4.745B-post-Brexit-boost


    NOVEMBER 5, 2016

    Brexit legal challenge: The High Court judge's 7 most damning statements
    The Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union's case, for bypassing parliament, was 'divorced from reality' and 'flawed at this basic level'. The landmark High Court judgement ruled that Theresa May does “not have power” to trigger Article 50. Here are seven of the most strongly worded and critical quotes from the 32-page judgement.
    Full article: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-leaving-european-union-judge-quotes-government-lord-chief-justice-a7395416.html


    NOVEMBER 4, 2016

    High court Brexit ruling: what does it all mean?
    The high court has decided the government does not have the power to trigger article 50 without consulting parliament. So what happens now? Can the ruling stop Brexit? Almost certainly not. But it does make the position much more confused.
    Full article: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/nov/03/high-court-brexit-ruling-what-does-it-all-mean


    NOVEMBER 3, 2016

    Brexit plans in disarray: High Court rules Parliament must have its say
    Parliament alone has the power to trigger Brexit, the High Court has ruled. Government to appeal after judges say article 50 cannot be triggered without MPs’ backing – a major blow to Theresa May.
    Full article: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/nov/03/parliament-must-trigger-brexit-high-court-rules


    OCTOBER 17, 2016

    Can Removing Subsidies In Farming Be Positive After ‘Brexit’?
    After Brexit, British farmers will no longer receive funding from the EU where subsidies are currently vital. The UK’s departure from the EU will hinder many industries in the UK, but it can also be used as an opportunity. In particular, farming in the UK must tackle the issue of efficiency where British farming is not sustainable without subsidies.
    Full article: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/fjona-krasniqi/can-removing-subsidies-in_b_12512046.html


    OCTOBER 4, 2016

    EU parliament's chief negotiator rules out advance talks
    Guy Verhofstadt, a former prime minister of Belgium appointed to represent the European parliament on Brexit, added his voice to the other EU institutions, which have rejected Theresa May’s call for “preparatory work”. May has promised to launch Britain’s EU withdrawal under article 50 by the end of March 2017, but wants advance talks to ensure a smooth exit. Verhofstadt said: “We welcome May’s announcement that clarifies the position of the United Kingdom, but for us it is clear that there can be no pre-negotiations. Negotiations can only start after the trigger of article 50.”
    Full article: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/oct/04/brexit-eu-parliaments-chief-negotiator-advance-talks-theresa-may-article-50


    OCTOBER 3, 2016

    Britain extends guarantee to replace EU funding after Brexit
    Britain will guarantee to cover any European Union funding secured ahead of the country's exit from the bloc, finance minister Philip Hammond said on Monday, extending an existing pledge to ease concerns that Brexit could hurt investment. "The Treasury will offer a guarantee to bidders whose projects meet UK priorities and value for money criteria, that if they secure multi-year EU funding before we exit, we will guarantee those payments after Britain has left the EU," he said in a speech to the Conservative Party conference in Birmingham.
    Full article: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-hammond-funding-idUSKCN12311R?mod=related&channelName=businessNews

    OCTOBER 3, 2016

    Further certainty on EU funding for hundreds of British projects
    Following his announcement in August, which guaranteed funds for projects signed up until the Autumn Statement, the Chancellor has now extended this guarantee to the point at which the UK departs the EU. The Chancellor confirmed that the government will guarantee EU funding for structural and investment fund projects, including agri-environment schemes, signed after the Autumn Statement and which continue after the UK leaves the EU.
    Full article: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/further-certainty-on-eu-funding-for-hundreds-of-british-projects

    OCTOBER 2, 2016

    Theresa May to trigger Article 50 by end of March 2017: full speech
    The UK will begin the formal Brexit negotiation process by the end of March 2017, PM Theresa May has said. The timing on triggering Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty means the UK looks set to leave the EU by summer 2019. Mrs May told the Tory Party conference the government would strike a deal with the EU as an "independent, sovereign" UK.
    Full article: http://www.conservativehome.com/parliament/2016/10/britain-after-brexit-a-vision-of-a-global-britain-theresa-mays-conservative-conference-speech-full-text.html



    SEPTEMBER 19, 2016

    EU Strives for Unity Minus U.K.

    European leaders are meeting without the U.K. for the first time in 43 years, aiming to build a shared vision for their post-Brexit bloc. The trouble is the vision may be more blurred than shared. "We need to be united," German Chancellor Angela Merkel told reporters as she arrived.
    Full article: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-09-16/brexit-bulletin-merkel-worries-for-eu-at-bratislava-summit

    SEPTEMBER 12, 2016

    EU budget: Who's to pay for Brexit?

    Brexit means that the EU is going to lose one of the largest contributors to its budget. There are two questions arising: How will commitments ranging beyond the date of Brexit be addressed? And how will the UK's contribution to the EU budget be reallocated between the remaining EU-27 member states?
    Full article: http://www.dbresearch.com/servlet/reweb2.ReWEB?document=PROD0000000000419698&rwobj=ReDisplay.Start.class&rwsite=DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD

    AUGUST 29, 2016

    Science and Brexit: European Research Area

    Based on the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU is building the “European Research Area (ERA)”. While the ERA aims to benefit EU Member States, it is also “open to the world” so that non-Member States that pay their way can and do participate and play leading roles in a wide range of research activities. There are actions that the UK government and UK researchers can take now. .
    Full article: http://scientistsforeu.uk/2016/08/science-and-brexit-time-to-be-better-europeans/

    AUGUST 26, 2016

    Owen Smith pledges to fight Brexit negotiations trigger

    Speaking to party members in Hammersmith, Mr Smith promised to campaign as leader against Article 50 until the UK Government offers a second referendum or calls a general election. Full article: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/owen-smith-article-50-brexit-labour-leadership-a7206716.html

    AUGUST 23, 2016

    Little prospect of UK leaving EU before 2020, says senior civil servant

    According to Lord Kerslake there is little prospect of Britain leaving the EU before 2020. The former head of the Civil Service says: "I think it’s at least five years away, maybe longer. All this talk of it being a two-year process is optimistic." Full article: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-date-eu-referendum-article-50-2020-civil-service-lord-bob-kerslake-a7203881.html

    AUGUST 22, 2016

    Brexit means Brexit … but the big question is when?

    Two months ago Britain voted to leave the EU. Brexit, though, has not yet begun to happen. The government does not know what it wants and is not yet equipped to ask for it. The referendum result however, is a political reality. So two months on, where does Brexit stand? Full article: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/aug/22/brexit-means-brexit-when-is-big-question

    AUGUST 18, 2016

    Merkel: Brexit is 'irrevocable' and negotiations must take place

    Angela Merkel has insisted there is no way to reverse the UK's decision to vote for Brexit. She said: "The whole process of the exit still lies ahead of us, but the decision is irrevocable. This not the first time Ms Merkel has said Brexit is irreversible, previously saying it is “wishful thinking” to suggest there is any way Britain can stay in the EU. Full article: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/brexit-is-irrevocable-and-negotiations-must-take-place-says-angela-merkel-a7198076.html

    AUGUST 14, 2016

    Brexit could be delayed to late-2019 as government not ready

    Britain's exit from the European Union could be delayed until at least late 2019 because the government was too "chaotic" to start the two-year process early next year, the Sunday Times reported. "Ministers are now thinking the trigger could be delayed until autumn 2017," one source, who had spoken to two senior ministers, told the newspaper. Full article: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-timing-idUSKCN10O0Y9

    AUGUST 13, 2016

    UK Government guarantee for post-EU funds

    EU funding for farmers, scientists and other projects will be replaced by the UK Treasury after Brexit. Chancellor Philip Hammond has said EU structural and investment fund projects signed before the Autumn Statement later this year, and Horizon research funding granted before leaving the EU, will be guaranteed by the Treasury after the UK leaves. Critics said the guarantee does not go far enough and there was "continued uncertainty". Full article: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-37060430

    JULY 26, 2016

    EU development funds frozen for at least 600 startups after Brexit vote

    A scheme, named CASTS, designed to provide advice and support for 600 startups in London was due to receive £3.7m from the ERDF this month, but has had the first payments out on "pause". The chief executive said: "Until last week we were on track to sign the full funding agreement in mid July". Full article: http://www.cityam.com/246241/eu-development-funds-frozen-least-600-startups-after-brexit

    JULY 26, 2016

    UK suspended payments from £3bn EU development fund days after Brexit vote

    Payments from a £3bn European development fund were suspended indefinitely by the UK Government, just days after the vote to leave the EU. In a move that exposes the almost immediate impact of Brexit on the UK economy, businesses say they have been told they will not now receive money that was due to be paid out under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). It was unclear whether all or just some payments from the ERDF have been suspended by the Treasury. Full article: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/european-regional-development-fund-erdf-suspends-treasury-brexit-eu-referendum-a7154526.html

    JULY 26, 2016

    EU funding for SMEs in north of England under threat

    The UK government has said it cannot guarantee further EU funding following the UK’s vote to leave the EU. The funds, dubbed JEREMIE, have helped more than 1,700 companies in the north of England, but now the future of the funding is at risk. Full article: http://economia.icaew.com/news/july-2016/eu-funding-for-smes-in-north-of-england-under-threat

    JULY 23, 2016

    Debate on Brexit and Unitary Patent system: ‘Legal uncertainty must be avoided’

    One month after the UK referendum, discussion has deepened and several papers have been published about the Brexit vote and the Unitary Patent system. Is it possible to both save the system and keep the UK in? EPO president Benoît Battistelli thinks the best case scenario would be for the UK to ‘go ahead as soon as possible with the ratification of the UPC Agreement. Full article: http://kluwerpatentblog.com/2016/07/23/debate-on-brexit-and-unitary-patent-system-legal-uncertainty-must-be-avoided/

    JULY, 21 2016

    The Effect of “Brexit” on UK Public Procurement Legislation and the Application Of EU State Aid Rules in the UK

    This article considers issues concerning the extent to which the UK’s exit from the European Union might lead to changes in domestic procurement legislation, and whether, post-Brexit, restrictions on government subsidies might continue to apply. Full article: http://whoswholegal.com/news/features/article/33240/effect-brexit-uk-public-procurement-legislation-application-eu-state-aid-rules-uk/

    JULY 20, 2016

    Four scenarios: how Brexit could happen

    The Financial Times explores four possible scenarios, viewed through the perspective of the process rather than the final outcome. They represent four very different paths: a hostile divorce, a clean break, an amicable transition and a change of heart, in which Brexit is averted. Full article: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/5ec21720-49c1-11e6-8d68-72e9211e86ab.html#axzz4EwUFzqV0

    JULY 20, 2016

    British PM May to thrash out Brexit roadmap in Berlin, Paris talks

    Prime Minister Theresa May is heading to Berlin on Wednesday (July 20) and Paris on Thursday to start thrashing out the roadmap for Britain's departure from the European Union. Mrs May's Downing Street office said she would try to establish a personal relationship and explain how her government needed time to consult before sculpting its objectives for Britain's divorce from Brussels. Full article: http://www.straitstimes.com/world/europe/british-pm-may-to-thrash-out-brexit-roadmap-in-berlin-paris-talks

    JULY 19, 2016

    Theresa May chairs first cabinet meeting and modifies her Brexit message

    The new prime minister may have spent recent weeks reassuring her colleagues that “Brexit means Brexit”. But as the new cabinet met for the first time on Tuesday morning, she appeared keen to modify the message a little. Just in case the numerous Brexiteers in her cabinet had got the wrong idea. Full article: https://www.totalpolitics.com/articles/news/theresa-may-chairs-first-cabinet-meeting-and-modifies-her-brexit-message

    JULY 19, 2016

    Brexit process will not begin this year, court told

    The UK Government does not plan to trigger Article 50 of the Lisbon treaty before the end of this year, the country's High Court was told Tuesday. This was revealed at the opening of the first legal challenge to the Brexit process. Lead claimant is arguing that neither the UK government nor the prime minister can trigger Article 50 alone. The matter will now be heard by the High Court in October. Full article: http://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/19/politics/uk-will-not-trigger-brexit-before-end-of-year/

    JULY 15, 2016

    David Davis: Trigger Brexit by start of 2017

    The new minister in charge of Brexit says the UK should be able to formally trigger its departure from the EU "before or by the start of next year". David Davis called for a "brisk but measured" approach, with a likely exit from the EU around December 2018. Full article: http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-uk-leaves-the-eu-36802756

    JULY 15, 2016

    Brexit ‘does not mean leaving Europe’, says UK foreign minister

    British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson said Thursday that quitting the EU did not mean leaving Europe: “We have to give effect to the will of the people in the referendum, but that does not mean, in any sense, leaving Europe,” said Johnson.
    Full article: http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/796081/brexit-does-not-mean-leaving-europe-says-uk-foreign-minister

    JULY 15, 2016

    Who is in Theresa May's new Cabinet?

    Full line-up after Tory Prime Minister's bombshell reshuffle. Boris Johnson is Foreign Secretary, Philip Hammond's at the top and George Osborne's out along with Michael Gove and Nicky Morgan among others.  Full article: http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/who-theresa-mays-new-cabinet-8410715

    JULY 15, 2016

    May builds new-look Brexit cabinet to steer EU divorce

    New Prime Minister Theresa May ruthlessly overhauled the British cabinet on Thursday, sacking a raft of ministers, promoting loyalists and putting supporters of Britain's exit from the European Union firmly in charge of negotiating its terms. Full article: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-wrapup-idUSKCN0ZU1HE

    JULY 14, 2016

    Theresa May asks for more time before Brexit talks

    Theresa May asked French President François Hollande and German Chancellor Angela Merkel for more time before starting negotiations for Britain’s exit from the European Union. However, Hollande urged May to trigger Article 50 to start Britain’s divorce proceedings, “as soon as possible.” Full article: http://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-asks-merkel-hollande-for-more-time-before-brexit-talks-france-germany/

    JULY 14, 2016

    What does 'Brexit means Brexit' mean?

    Is the new prime minister May’s slogan as firm and unambiguous as it first seems? Full article: http://www.politico.eu/article/theresa-may-asks-merkel-hollande-for-more-time-before-brexit-talks-france-germany/

    JULY 12, 2016

    UK scientists dropped from EU projects because of post-Brexit funding fears

    Doubts over the UK’s ability to win future project grants mean some EU partners are avoiding working with British researchers. Full article: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/jul/12/uk-scientists-dropped-from-eu-projects-because-of-post-brexit-funding-fears

    JULY 9, 2016

    Letter by 1000 lawyers: Brexit vote was ‘advisory’ so UK parliament must decide

    More than 1,000 lawyers have signed a letter addressed to Prime Minister David Cameron saying the EU referendum result is merely “advisory” and not legally binding. Full article: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/in-full-the-letter-from-1000-lawyers-to-david-cameron-over-eu-referendum-brexit-legality-a7130226.html

    JULY 9, 2016

    UK Government rejects call for second EU referendum petition


    The Government has rejected a call for a second referendum in a petition that was signed by more than 4.1 million people. The Foreign Office said 33 million people had had their say and the decision must be respected. “We must now prepare for the process to exit the EU.” Full article: http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-petition-idUKKCN0ZP0D4

    JULY 8, 2016

    NFU launches consultation on the British agricultural policy


    The NFU is launching a consultation on the formulation of a domestic agricultural policy, following the decision of the UK to leave the EU. The Union hopes to complete this ’biggest farming consultation in England and Wales for a generation’ by September. Full article: http://www.nfuonline.com/news/eu-referendum/eu-referendum-must-read/nfu-launches-biggest-farming-consultation-for-a-generation/

    JULY 7, 2016

    Van Rompuy: UK must accept free movement to stay in single market

    Britain should not expect any compromise on the European Union’s free movement rules if it wants to stay in the single market, says former EU leader Van Rompuy. His stance reflects the position agreed by 27 EU leaders at the summit last week, where the UK had no place at the table. Full article: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/07/herman-van-rompuy-uk-free-movement-single-market-eu

    JULY 7, 2016

    IMF chief Christine Lagarde urges quick Brexit


    The IMF does not have a scenario for the prolonged period of uncertainty currently facing the UK, in which article 50 is not triggered and the UK remains in limbo, having voted to leave, but without beginning to do so. This was confirmed by Ms Lagarde. Full article: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-latest-imf-pound-sterling-christine-lagarde-warning-economy-what-does-it-mean-a7124961.html

    JULY 7, 2016

    Will Dutch follow Brexit with Nexit?


    The fallout from Brexit has sent ripples of apprehension across the North Sea. And it has given rise to the question, could the Netherlands be next? Full article: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36722915

    JULY 7, 2016

    Will Dutch follow Brexit with Nexit?


    The fallout from Brexit has sent ripples of apprehension across the North Sea. And it has given rise to the question, could the Netherlands be next? Full article: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36722915

    JULY 5, 2016

    UK researchers fear Brexit will cut them out of bids for EU collaborative funding


    According to Professor Ali Mobasheri , Dutch and Belgian partners consider it risky to include UK partners in an upcoming EU bid, even before formal Brexit negotiations have begun. “They don’t really want us to be involved,” he said. “They are worried it could jeopardise the proposal’s chances.” Full article:  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/brexit-latest-imf-pound-sterling-christine-lagarde-warning-economy-what-does-it-mean-a7124961.html

    JULY 7, 2016

    Will Dutch follow Brexit with Nexit?


    The fallout from Brexit has sent ripples of apprehension across the North Sea. And it has given rise to the question, could the Netherlands be next? Full article: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-36722915

    JULY 4, 2016

    Brexit: a death knell for the European Unitary Patent and Unified Patent Court?


    UK withdrawal from the EU could permanently jeopardise the launch of the European single patent. Supporters were awaiting the launch of the Unitary Patent (UP) and Unified Patent Court (UPC) in January 2017. The recent Brexit vote dashed any hope of meeting this deadline. Full article: href="http://sciencebusiness.net/news/79852/Could-Brexit-be-a-death-knell-for-the-European-Unitary-Patent-and-the-Unified-Patent-Court" Full article:  http://sciencebusiness.net/news/79852/Could-Brexit-be-a-death-knell-for-the-European-Unitary-Patent-and-the-Unified-Patent-Court

    JULY 4, 2016

    Law firm says: article 50 cannot be triggered without full debate and vote by parliament?


    A prominent law firm is taking pre-emptive legal action against the government, to try to ensure article 50 is not triggered without an act of parliament. According to Mishcon de Reya, the decision to trigger article 50 rests with the representatives of the people under the UK constitution. Full article:href="https://www.theguardian.com/law/2016/jul/03/parliament-must-decide-whether-or-not-to-leave-the-eu-say-lawyers" Full article:  https://www.theguardian.com/law/2016/jul/03/parliament-must-decide-whether-or-not-to-leave-the-eu-say-lawyers
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